Many environmental and other public decisions involve multiple stakeholder groups such as elected officials, engineers, environmentalists, neighborhood groups, developers, consumers and taxpayers, regulators, and lawyers. Such groups of groups often need to come to a political consensus over land use choices or public works expansions with many millions to billions of investment dollars at stake, and numerous conflicting environmental, health and quality of life outcomes to address.

No process for public involvement can guarantee a good outcome. But there are better ways of organizing the processes by which public choices are made.

Sacramento master planning.

Toxic waste cleanup at Sandia. SF PUC. Sacramento Delta farming.